J Physiol. 2004 Feb 15;555(Pt 1):115-23. Epub 2003 Nov 21.
Activation of Bronchopulmonary Vagal Afferent Nerves with Bradykinin, Acid and Vanilloid Receptor Agonists in Wild-Type and TRPV1-/- Mice.
Kollarik M, Undem BJ.
Johns Hopkins Asthma Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (formerly VR1) has been implicated in the activation of nociceptive sensory nerves by capsaicin, noxious heat, protons, bradykinin, cannabinoids such as anandamide, and certain metabolites of arachidonic acid. Using TRPV1 knockout mouse (TRPV1-/-) we address the question of whether TRPV1 is obligatory for action potential discharge in vagal C-fibre terminals evoked by capsaicin, anandamide, acid and bradykinin. The response of a defined subtype of the vagal afferent bronchopulmonary C-fibres (conduction velocity < 0.7 ms(-1)) to the putative TRPV1 activators was studied in vitro in the mouse isolated/perfused lung-nerve preparation. Capsaicin (1 microm) evoked action potential discharge of approximately 90% (28/31) of C-fibres in the TRPV1+/+ mice, but failed to activate bronchopulmonary C-fibres in TRPV1-/- animals (n = 10). Anandamide (3-100 microm) induced concentration-dependent activation of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1+/+ C-fibres with a threshold of 3-10 microm, but failed to evoke substantive discharge in TRPV1-/- C-fibres. In the TRPV1+/+ mice, the B2 receptor-mediated activation by bradykinin (1 microm) was restricted to the capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres. Bradykinin was effective in evoking B2 receptor-mediated action potential discharge in TRPV1-/- C-fibres, but the response was significantly (P < 0.05) less persistent than in TRPV1+/+ C-fibres. Exposing the tissue to acid (pH = 5) excited both TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1-/- C-fibres. We conclude that TRPV1 is obligatory for vagal C-fibre activation by capsaicin and anandamide. By contrast, whereas TRPV1 may have a modulatory role in bradykinin and acid-induced activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibres, it is not required for action potential discharge evoked by these stimuli.
PMID: 14634201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1978 Jun;5(6):523-5.
Bronchodilator Effect of Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Hartley JP, Nogrady SG, Seaton A.
1. Δ1-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol, (Δ1-THC) produces bronchodilatation in asthmatic patients.
2. Administered in 62 microliter metered volumes containing 50--200 microgram by inhalation from an aerosol device to patients judged to be in a steady state, it increased peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1).
3. The rate of onset, magnitude, and duration of the bronchodilator effect was dose related.
PMCID: PMC1429361, PMID: 656294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thorax. 1976 Dec;31(6):720-3.
Bronchodilator Effect of Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administered by Aerosol of Asthmatic Patients.
Williams SJ, Hartley JP, Graham JD.
Ten volunteer inpatient asthmatics in a steady state were given a single inhalation of an aerosol (63 mul) delivered in random order, on each of three consecutive days, in the laboratory of a respiratory unit. Before, and for one hour after treatment the pulse, blood pressure (lying and standing), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak flow rate (PFR), and self-rating mood scales (SRMS) were recorded. Treatments were placebo-ethanol only; delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 200 mug in ethanol; or salbutamol 100 mug (Ventolin inhaler), administered double blind. Salbutamol and THC significantly improved ventilatory function. Maximal bronchodilatation was achieved more rapidly with salbutamol, but at 1 hour both drugs were equally effective. No cardiovascular or mood disturbance was detected, and plasma total cannabinoids at 15 minutes were undectable by radioimmunoassay. The mode of action of THC differs from that of sympathomimetic drugs, and it or a derivative may make a suitable adjuvant in the treatment of selected asthmatics.
PMCID: PMC470501, PMID: 797044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]