World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar 14;15(10):1264-6.
Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Clinical Diagnosis of an Underrecognised Manifestation of Chronic Cannabis Abuse.
Sontineni SP, Chaudhary S, Sontineni V, Lanspa SJ.
Department of Internal Medicine, 601 N 30th St Suite 5850, Creighton University Medical Centre, Omaha, NE 68131, United States.
Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered.
PMCID: PMC2658859, PMID: 19291829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Diabetes Metab. 2008 Dec;34(6 Pt 2):680-4.
Cannabinoid Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets for the Management of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis.
Mallat A, Lotersztajn S.
Inserm, U841, Créteil, F-94010 France.
Prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rises steadily in Western countries with the obesity epidemic. NASH is associated with activation of liver fibrogenesis and predisposes to cirrhosis and associated morbi-mortality. The cannabinoid system is increasingly emerging as a crucial mediator of acute and chronic liver injury. Recent experimental and clinical data indicate that peripheral activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors promotes insulin resistance and liver steatogenesis, two key steps in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Moreover, CB1 receptors enhance progression of liver fibrogenesis. These findings provide a strong rationale for the use of CB1 antagonists in the management of NASH.
PMCID: 19195630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Can J Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr;22(4):376-80.
Evaluation of Oral Cannabinoid-Containing Medications for the Management of Interferon and Ribavirin-Induced Anorexia, Nausea and Weight Loss in Patients Treated for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus.
Costiniuk CT, Mills E, Cooper CL.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
OBJECTIVES: The systemic and cognitive side effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy may be incapacitating, necessitating dose reductions or abandonment of therapy. Oral cannabinoid-containing medications (OCs) ameliorate chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, as well as AIDS wasting syndrome. The efficacy of OCs in managing HCV treatment-related side effects is unknown.
METHODS: All patients who initiated interferon-ribavirin therapy at The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Ontario) between August 2003 and January 2007 were identified using a computerized clinical database. The baseline characteristics of OC recipients were compared with those of nonrecipients. The treatment-related side effect response to OC was assessed by c2 analysis. The key therapeutic outcomes related to weight, interferon dose reduction and treatment outcomes were assessed by Student's t test and c2 analysis.
RESULTS: Twenty-five of 191 patients (13%) initiated OC use. Recipients had similar characteristics to nonrecipients, aside from prior marijuana smoking history (24% versus 10%, respectively; P=0.04). The median time to OC initiation was seven weeks. The most common indications for initiation of OC were anorexia (72%) and nausea (32%). Sixty-four per cent of all patients who received OC experienced subjective improvement in symptoms. The median weight loss before OC initiation was 4.5 kg. A trend toward greater median weight loss was noted at week 4 in patients eventually initiating OC use (-1.4 kg), compared with those who did not (-1.0 kg). Weight loss stabilized one month after OC initiation (median 0.5 kg additional loss). Interferon dose reductions were rare and did not differ by OC use (8% of OC recipients versus 5% of nonrecipients). The proportions of patients completing a full course of HCV therapy and achieving a sustained virological response were greater in OC recipients.
CONCLUSIONS: The present retrospective cohort analysis found that OC use is often effective in managing HCV treatment-related symptoms that contribute to weight loss, and may stabilize weight decline once initiated.
PMCID: PMC2662895, PMID: 18414712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]